Demonstration by the Polish trade union Solidarnosc in the pilgrimage city of Tschenstochau (Poland). The illegal trade union Solidarnosc grew into a mass movement that could no longer be stopped.
источник: AP Photo

Initiative for Peace and Human Rights

Эта статья еще не переведена русский.

January 1986 saw the foundation of an opposition group that offensively addressed the subject of human rights. The Initiative for Peace and Human Rights (IFM) argued that lasting peace in Europe could only be achieved if democracies were established in the states of the Eastern Bloc. This meant sweeping political reforms were needed in all communist dictatorships.

Information stall run by the Initiative for Peace and Human Rights (IFM) on the grounds of the Church of the Redeemer during the Peace Workshop in East Berlin, 29 June 1986. The church prohibited the presentation of the underground magazine grenzfall (“Border Fall”). The magazine’s editor Peter Grimm (2nd from l.).
источник: Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft/Peter Rölle
Members of the Initiative for Peace and Human Rights in East Berlin, 1987. The initiative opposed the SED’s claim to sole leadership, consistently making its demands public. It was spied on and persecuted by the SED’s secret police.
источник: Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft

The IFM differed from other opposition groups in that it had no connection to the church and was consequently not protected by the church, either. When the illegal magazine grenzfall ("Border Fall" or "Borderline Case") was published, it deliberately contravened the laws of the GDR. The editors did not bow to the state monopoly on information and referred to freedom of speech and the press as fundamental rights.

Stasi informers infiltrated the group. Some members were arrested and expelled from the GDR. Despite the imminent threat of persecution, the IFM continued its activities. Its protagonists shaped the revolution of 1989 to a large extent. They were involved in initiatives to found several civil rights movements and parties. The IFM itself became a political organisation with fixed membership as of February 1990.

Founding appeal of the Initiative for Peace and Human Rights dating from 24 January 1986. Members signed the appeal with their full names and addresses, exercising the right to freedom of opinion they were denied under the dictatorship. This openness was also a step against the climate of fear in East German society.
источник: Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft
Founding appeal of the Initiative for Peace and Human Rights dating from 24 January 1986. Members signed the appeal with their full names and addresses, exercising the right to freedom of opinion they were denied under the dictatorship. This openness was also a step against the climate of fear in East German society.
источник: Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft
First edition of grenzfall, the underground magazine of the Initiative for Peace and Human Rights. Fifty copies were made, each consisting of nine photographic prints held together with paperclips. The length and print-run increased with every issue.
источник: Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft
[Translate to Russisch:] Erklärung zum Ungarn-Aufstand 1956. Die Initiative Frieden und Menschenrechte sucht das Bündnis mit den Dissidenten der osteuropäischen Staaten. Gezielt werden die Westmedien für eine systematische Öffentlichkeitsarbeit genutzt.
источник: Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft
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