Demonstration by the Polish trade union Solidarnosc in the pilgrimage city of Tschenstochau (Poland). The illegal trade union Solidarnosc grew into a mass movement that could no longer be stopped.
источник: AP Photo

Networks

Эта статья еще не переведена русский.

In the second half of the 1980s, the number of opposition groups grew. They were increasingly organised at national level and formed networks. Up until 1989, more than ten such activist groupings had developed, connecting several hundred groups. Environmental groups worked together in the network Ark, while peace groups were linked up via Concrete Peace. Conscientious objectors were also active nationwide.

Opposition groups in the GDR
источник: Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft/Graphik eckedesign
The Friends of Conscientious Objectors, active across the GDR since 1986, at the Peace Workshop at East Berlin’s Church of the Redeemer, 1988. The conscientious objectors called for the right to refuse national service. There was no alternative community service in the GDR, and refusal of military service was punishable by imprisonment.
источник: Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft
Meeting of the group Concrete Peace, February 1987. This network was founded in 1983 and discussed political aspects of peace work. Many of the participants later became key players in the 1989 revolution: Hans-Jochen Tschiche, Rudi Pahnke, Rainer Eppelmann (1st row, l.-r.), Heino Falcke (1st row, 2nd from r.) and Bishop Johannes Hempel (r.)
источник: epd-bild/Bernd Bohm
Protest action at the closing event of the church congress in Berlin’s Wuhlheide Park, June 1987. Members of the group Open Work from the Protestant churches called for glasnost (openness) and democracy in the East German church and state.
источник: Archiv Bundesstiftung Aufarbeitung, Bestand Klaus Mehner, Nr. 87_0628_EvKT_03
Critique at the East Berlin church congress, June 1987. Members of the Church from Below called for the Protestant church to take more offensive action against conditions in the GDR and support dissident issues.
источник: Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft
Founding meeting of the Green Ecological Network Ark in East Berlin, January 1988. The Ark network campaigned against the destruction of the East German environment, with groups from across the country joining. Contacts also developed to Western and Eastern Europe.
источник: Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft/Siegbert Schefke
Meetings of the Working Circle Solidaristic Church were used to exchange information. In January 1989 the Berlin regional group set up an “information kiosk” where opposition groups could present their magazines at regular intervals.
источник: Joachim Goertz

The key objective of their work was an exchange of information. Close personal contacts meant GDR-wide solidarity campaigns could be organised quickly when opposition activists were arrested. Common goals were discussed and argumentation without notes practised in seminars and other events. Despite links at national level, the groups continued to work autonomously. The lack of a central structure and their spontaneity made it difficult for the Stasi to control and stem the growing movement.

Arche Nova was the magazine of the Green Ecological Network Ark. It was produced using the modest means of the underground press but reached a large number of readers. Well-researched articles reported on environmental damage in the GDR and actions by the environmental movement.
источник: Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft
Appeal for social dialogue by the Thuringian Working Circle Solidaristic Church dated February 1988. The working circle was founded in 1986 and active across the GDR. Its members were mainly church employees who voiced criticism of the church and the state and supported political prisoners.
источник: Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft
Appeal for social dialogue by the Thuringian Working Circle Solidaristic Church dated February 1988. The working circle was founded in 1986 and active across the GDR. Its members were mainly church employees who voiced criticism of the church and the state and supported political prisoners.
источник: Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft
[Translate to Russisch:] Erklärung zum Ungarn-Aufstand 1956. Die Initiative Frieden und Menschenrechte sucht das Bündnis mit den Dissidenten der osteuropäischen Staaten. Gezielt werden die Westmedien für eine systematische Öffentlichkeitsarbeit genutzt.
источник: Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft
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