Egon Krenz’in Devlet Konseyi’nin Başkanı olarak atanmasına karşı 24 Ekim 1989’da, Doğu Berlin’de Devlet Konseyi binası önünde yapılan protesto.
kaynak: picture-alliance/dpa/Wolfgang Kumm

4 Kasım 1989

4 Kasım 1989’da Alexander Meydanı’nda, Demokratik Almanya Cumhuriyeti (DDR) tarihinin sistemi eleştiren en büyük mitingi gerçekleşiyor. Sosyalist Birlik Partisi (SED), bu mitingde iktidarını savunmaya çalışıyor. Yüz binlerce insan ise demokratik hak ve tek partili iktidarın yıkılmasını talep ediyor. 

All the theatres in East Berlin sent representatives to help plan the demonstration. This preparatory group negotiated with the police and compiled a list of speakers. The actor Wolfgang Holz from the Berliner Ensemble registered the demonstration on 17 October 1989. The SED and its cultural functionaries tried to gain control of the preparations. Holz wrote a letter of complaint over one such attempt on 2 November.
kaynak: imago stock & people/Sommer
The New Forum initiative group decided to organise a major demonstration in East Berlin, asking the theatres for support. Jutta Seidel from New Forum wrote a note to the well-known actress Jutta Wachowiak (top, 3rd from l.) at the Deutsches Theater.
kaynak: Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft/Andreas Kämper
Doğu Berlin Alexander Meydanı’nda 4 Kasım 1989 tarihli büyük miting.
kaynak: ullstein bild/Bildarchiv
Doğu Berlin Alexander Meydanı’nda 4 Kasım 1989 tarihli büyük miting.
kaynak: Landesarchiv Berlin/Klaus Lehnartz
4 November 1989 outside the Palace of the Republic. The building housed the People’s Chamber, the GDR parliament. During the demonstration members of the paramilitary combat groups were stationed on all floors. They were ordered to stand by for deployment but make sure they were not visible to the demonstrators outside. A year later, one of the soldiers stated in the weekly newspaper of the civil rights movement, die andere: “I stood there all the time as if I had my fists balled in my pockets. I was still thinking, down there is the counter-revolution and I’d never have thought there were so many of them... what a lot of crap I thought and went along with back then.”
kaynak: Archiv Bundesstiftung Aufarbeitung, Bestand Klaus Mehner, Nr. 89_1104_POL-Demo_43
Major demonstration on Alexanderplatz in East Berlin, 4 November 1989.
kaynak: Landesarchiv Berlin/Klaus Lehnartz
Die größte Demonstration in der Geschichte der DDR am 4. November 1989 auf dem Alexanderplatz in Ost-Berlin.
kaynak: Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft/Andreas Kämper
“There are still enough forces that do not want change, that fear a new society and have much to fear.” Christoph Hein (writer)
kaynak: Bundesarchiv/183-1989-1104-051/Hubert Link
“The existing structures ... do not allow renewal. That’s why they must be destroyed.” Jan-Josef Liefers (actor)
kaynak: Bundesarchiv/183-1989-1104-032/Hubert Link
“Yes, it’s true, we have rediscovered language and since then the world hasn’t recognised this sleepy country.” Jens Reich (New Forum)
kaynak: Bundesarchiv/183-1989-1104-036/Hubert Link
“And this is the most important sentence of these past weeks for me – the thousand-fold call: We are the people!” Christa Wolf (writer)
kaynak: Bundesarchiv/183-1989-1104-060/Hubert Link
“We have to think about the question of power and how power can be controlled.” Marianne Birthler (Initiative Peace and Human Rights)
kaynak: Bundesarchiv/183-1989-1104-043/Hubert Link
“Egon Krenz ... deserves ... a chance and the measure of trust necessary to exercise his office.” Gregor Gysi (SED)
kaynak: Bundesarchiv/183-1989-1104-042/Hubert Link
The founding members of New Forum, Bärbel Bohley (middle) and Jutta Seidel (r.), during the demonstration on 4 November 1989.
kaynak: Archiv Bundesstiftung Aufarbeitung, Bestand Klaus Mehner, Nr. 89_1104_POL-Demo_53
Doğu Berlin Alexander Meydanı’nda 4 Kasım 1989 tarihli büyük miting.
kaynak: Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft/Andreas Kämper
kaynak: Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft/Andreas Kämper
Display of support for Wolf Biermann on a statue. Bärbel Bohley from New Forum had invited the singer-songwriter Biermann to perform at the demonstration. This caused a great deal of agitation – Wolf Biermann had been expelled from the GDR in 1976 and was regarded as public enemy number one. He was refused entry at the border on 4 November 1989.
kaynak: Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft/Andreas Kämper
Display of support for Wolf Biermann on a statue. Bärbel Bohley from New Forum had invited the singer-songwriter Biermann to perform at the demonstration. This caused a great deal of agitation – Wolf Biermann had been expelled from the GDR in 1976 and was regarded as public enemy number one. He was refused entry at the border on 4 November 1989.
kaynak: Rolf Zöllner
What the SED most feared was the demonstration taking a detour towards the Berlin Wall. Armed security forces blocked off this route, with observation points set up all along the demonstration. On 4 November 1989 itself, the Stasi was only able to register its accelerating loss of power in a report by the Central Operating Staff: “10 a.m.: a cable drum is rolled along at the front of the demonstration, with the inscription: people’s roller, you can’t turn back the wheel of history.”
kaynak: Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft/Rolf Walter

Berlinli aktör ve sanatçılar „Yeni Forum“un girişimiyle büyük bir miting örgütlüyorlar. SED yönetimi mitinge izin veriyor. Ancak onların niyeti, bu etkinliği kendi amaçları için kullanmak. SED için en büyük tehlike, yürüyüş kortejinin öngörülen güzergahtan sapması. Bundan dolayı, duvara doğru giden yol silahlı güvenlik güçleri tarafından kapatılıyor.

Mitinge diğer şehirlerden çok sayıda insan katılıyor. Sahneden sanatçılar, yurttaş hakları savunucuları ve devlet yönetiminin üyeleri konuşuyor. „Biz, hakkımız olan özgürlüğü alıyoruz“ sözleriyle „Yeni Forum“un temsilcisi, birçok insanın düşündüğünü dile getiriyor. SED‘den konuşmacıların çoğu yuhalanıyor. Eylemcilerin pankartları açıktan şunu gösteriyor: Söz konusu olan DDR’nin demokratikleşmesi. Ancak bu partiyi artık istemiyorlar.

„Yeni Forum“un girişim grubu, Doğu Berlin’de büyük bir mitinge çağrı yapmaya karar veriyor. Grup, tiyatrolara başvurarak onlardan destek istiyor. „Yeni Forum“dan Jutta Seidel, Alman Tiyatrosu’ndaki ünlü oyuncu Jutta Wachowiak‘a bu isteğini dile getiren bir yazı gönderiyor.
kaynak: Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft
„Yeni Forum“un girişim grubu, Doğu Berlin’de büyük bir mitinge çağrı yapmaya karar veriyor. Grup, tiyatrolara başvurarak onlardan destek istiyor. „Yeni Forum“dan Jutta Seidel, Alman Tiyatrosu’ndaki ünlü oyuncu Jutta Wachowiak‘a bu isteğini dile getiren bir yazı gönderiyor.
kaynak: Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft
All the theatres in East Berlin sent representatives to help plan the demonstration. This preparatory group negotiated with the police and compiled a list of speakers. The actor Wolfgang Holz from the Berliner Ensemble registered the demonstration on 17 October 1989. The SED and its cultural functionaries tried to gain control of the preparations. Holz wrote a letter of complaint over one such attempt on 2 November.
kaynak: Archiv Deutsches Theater Berlin
The West German BILD, 6 November 1989: “Revolution in the GDR: the Spokespeople from Alex”.
kaynak: Bild Zeitung, 06.11.1989
4 November 1989. Telegram from the head of state and the SED Egon Krenz to leading party functionaries following the demonstration in East Berlin.
kaynak: Die Bundesbeauftragte für die Unterlagen des Staatssicherheitsdienstes der ehemaligen DDR
4 November 1989. Telegram from the head of state and the SED Egon Krenz to leading party functionaries following the demonstration in East Berlin.
kaynak: Die Bundesbeauftragte für die Unterlagen des Staatssicherheitsdienstes der ehemaligen DDR
A participant in the Berlin demonstration from Aschersleben wrote to the orga nisers. “It was a great day ... the faces saw freely,” he expressed his enthusiasm, asking for a documentation of the historic events. Extract from the letter dated 7 November 1989.
kaynak: Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft
A participant in the Berlin demonstration from Aschersleben wrote to the orga nisers. “It was a great day ... the faces saw freely,” he expressed his enthusiasm, asking for a documentation of the historic events. Extract from the letter dated 7 November 1989.
kaynak: Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft
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